The Station is located at 29o 44’S/151o 42’E in the Northern Tablelands and the altitude is 1057m. Climate is characterised by an average annual rainfall of 840mm with summer dominance (36% incidence between December and February), a wide temperature range, and precipitation exceeding evaporation only in winter months. The mean maximum and minimum temperatures in the warmest month (January) are 25.2 and 13.5oC, respectively; the mean maximum and minimum temperatures in the coldest month (July) are 12.4 and 0.7oC, respectively.
Soil moisture has a well-defined seasonal pattern. Despite summer-rainfall dominance, soil moisture is progressively depleted during spring-summer, remains low and variable in late summer-autumn, and is recharged in winter. For pastures, the seasonal growth rhythm comprises high pasture growth during the spring primary growth phase, moderate pasture growth during the secondary growth phase in summer-autumn and low growth in winter. The major climatic stresses for pasture plants are summer-autumn moisture deficit, winter cold and episodic drought.