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Several oyster species are cultured in NSW including the native Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata), the introduced Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas), the native flat oyster (Ostrea angasi) and the Akoya pearl oyster (Pinctada imbricata). However, the Sydney rock oyster is the mainstay of the oyster industry in NSW making up 90% of the $58.4M oyster industry in 2021-22.

The practice of 'highway oyster farming', which involves transfer of oysters between estuaries for on-growing, was established for Sydney rock oysters during the 1960s. When oysters are moved between estuaries the oysters experience a spurt in growth. Highway oyster farming has also allowed different estuaries to specialise in different parts of the oyster production cycle: spat collection, growing or finishing. Although not as common as it once was, the practice of highway oyster farming can lead to an increase in production. However, it can also increase the risk of spreading diseases, as well as exotic marine pests including the now well-established introduced wild Pacific oyster.

Diseases that have been recorded in cultivated oysters include QX disease, Pacific oyster mortality syndrome and winter mortality. Pests known to impact oyster production include mudworms and flatworms.