Foot and mouth disease (Primefact 1255)


Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute, highly contagious viral disease of animals that affects cloven-hoofed animals (those with divided hoofs), including cattle, buffalo, camels, sheep, goats, deer and pigs.

It does not usually cause deaths in adult animal but does cause serious production losses.

It is characterised by the formation of vesicles (fluid filled blisters) and ulcers in the mouth.

Vesicles may also be found on the skin between and above the hoofs and also the nostrils and on the teats.

Australia is free from FMD.

Topics in this Primefact include:

  • What causes FMD?
  • Which species are affected?
  • What are the symptoms?
  • How long does the virus survive?
  • How is FMD spread?
  • Preventing FMD entry to Australia
  • FMD prevention and preparedness
  • Has FMD been detected in Australia?
  • Can FMD affect people humans?
  • Socioeconomic impact of FMD
  • What action would occur in Australia if FMD was to occur?


Primefact 1255 Second Edition

Published: Jul 2022