When sowing, the aim is to choose sowing machinery that gives good soil–seed contact and to sow at the optimum depth in the soil (10 mm).
Reliability of establishment is highest when seed is sown into a conventionally prepared seedbed, followed by direct drilling, and lastly aerial or surface sowing into crop stubble.
Aerial sowing into undisturbed pasture country is not recommended.
In conventionally prepared seed beds, rough surfaces and furrows can lead to seeds being buried too deeply by trailing harrows or rolling. Harrow before sowing to reduce the risk of sowing too deeply.