Acid sulfate soils in the Lower Hunter River Estuary, on the NSW Lower North Coast, are a risk to internationally important estuary features such as the Lower Hunter Ramsar Wetlands and migratory bird habitat. This report provides results of a detailed on-ground assessment of the distribution and effects of acid sulfate soils. Analysis of soil core and water quality data from five wetland sites – Kooragang Wetland, Shortland Wetlands, Tomago Wetland, Hexham Swamp and Fullerton Cove – has detected acidic materials at varying degrees of severity in all five sites. This data, combined with landscape elevation information (LiDAR) and soil hydraulic and electrical conductivity, has enabled risk to be rated for each site. Options for future management of acid sulfate soils in Hunter wetlands are also provided.