The pH is the measure of the hydrogen ion concentration in soil or water. An ion is an electrically charged atom. Water exists as a balance between hydrogen ions (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) and has the formula H20. The pH scale ranges from 0-14 with 7 neutral. When there are more hydrogen ions (H+) present the pH will be lower than 7 and the water acidic. The water is basic (alkaline) when there are more hydroxyl ions (OH-).
Silver perch grow best in a pH range of 6.5 to 9. Fig. 1 shows the relationships of pH of pond waters to their suitability for fish.
Carbon dioxide has an acidic reaction in water. The pH in ponds rises during the day because phytoplankton and other aquatic plants remove carbon dioxide from the water during the process of photosynthesis. The pH decreases at night because of respiration and production of carbon dioxide by all organisms.
Signs of Sub-optimal pH:
Effects of Sub-Optimal pH:
Causes of Sub-Optimal pH:
Sub-optimal pH - What can I do?
To decrease high pH:
To increase pH: